Workshop 2

In-situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for metal heritage

This workshop will present the capabilities of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to perform in-situ assessment of the protective properties of patinas, coatings or other protection systems on metallic cultural heritage. The workshop content is introductory to the technique, so no previous knowledge of electrochemical techniques is required. Students will be learn the fundamentals of the technique, its history and latest developments of in-situ measurements. The hands-on session will perform an EIS measurement on a real sculpture and interpret the results, and will focus on the practical implications and utility for conservation practice.

The workshop is complete

Preliminary program

Morning session: Theory
10:00-11:00 Introduction to EIS. Fundamentals and instrumentation. P. Letardi
11:00-12:00 Applications of EIS to metallic cultural heritage. Developments for in-situ measurements. B. Ramírez Barat
12:00-13:30 Lunch

Afternoon session: Practice (if the number of attendees is higher than 8, the group will be split into two and will swap between the two classes)
13:30-14:45: Hands-on session on preparing and carrying out in situ EIS measurements (B. Ramírez-Barat and P. Letardi)
14:45-16:00: Interpretation of results and practical applications for conservation practice (E. Cano)

Short bios


Blanca Ramírez-Barat has a BSc in Chemistry and a BA in Fine Art, both from the Complutense University of Madrid, and a MSc in Materials Science and Engineering from Carlos III University. After several years in R&D management, she joined the research group “Corrosion and protection of metals in cultural heritage and construction” at the National Center for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC) in Madrid, Spain. Her research is focused on the application of electrochemical techniques for conservation assessment and diagnosis in cultural heritage.

Contact information
CENIM-CSIC. Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid, Spain



Paola Letardi has a degree in Physics and worked in the field of Material Science and Surface Spectroscopy, with a particular interest in the development of methodologies and instrumentation. She has been active in national and international projects on the diagnostics and monitoring for the Conservation of Cultural Heritage. Her research focuses on the study of corrosion of metals in the marine environment and on specific applications of electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques for artifacts of historical interest.

Contact information
CNR-IAS, via De Marini 6 – 16149 Genoa, Italy;
Tel: +39 010 6475434


Emilio Cano is Tenured Scientist at the National Center for Metallurgical Research (CENIM) of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) in Madrid and Head of the “Corrosion and Protection of metals in cultural heritage and construction” (COPAC) research group. He has a PhD from the Complutense University of Madrid (2001). His research interests include corrosion and protection of metallic heritage, indoor corrosion and electrochemical techniques. He is Assistant Coordinator of the ICOM-CC Metals Working Group; coordinator of the Spanish Network on Science and Technology for the Conservation of Cultural Heritage (TechnoHeritage) and the Spanish Node of the European Research Infrastructure on Heritage Science (E-RIHS).

Contact information
CENIM-CSIC. Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Tel: (+34) 91 5538900, ext 309.


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